Designation: D 2047–75

Standard Test Method for
This Standard is issued under the fixed designation D 2047; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parenthesis indicates the year of last reapproval.

1. Scope
    1.1 This method covers the measurement of the static
          coefficient of friction of floor surfaces by the James Machine.
          The apparatus is not suitable for use on wet, rough, or
          corrugated surfaces.

2. Applicable Documents
    2.1 ASTM Standard:
        D 1436 Applications of Emulsion Floor Polishes to
        Substrates for Testing Purposes.2

    2.2 Other Standard:
        Proposed Trade Practice Rules for the Floor Wax and Floor
        Polish Industry, issued March 17, 1953, by the Federal Trade

5. Test Panels
    5.1 For interlaboratory and specification testing 9 by 9 in. (229
          by 229-mm) tiles of OVAT shall be used.6 The tiles are
          prepared for use as follows.

    5.2 Thoroughly scrub all tiles using No. 00 steel wool and any
          suitable aqueous type wax remover or stripper. Scrub hard
          to help smooth out high and low spots on the tile.

    5.3 Apply two coats of any suitable floor polish using the manual
          dip coat method (Method C of Method D 1436). Allow to dry
          2 hours between coats and a minimum of an overnight (15 to
          16 Hours) after the second coat.

    5.4 The next day strip off all the polish from the tiles following the
          procedure used in 5.2.

    5.5 Repeat the coating (5.3) and stripping (5.2) operations four
          times. A total of ten coats of polish will then have been
          applied and removed.

3. Significance
    3.1 Floor polishes having a coefficient of static friction, as
          measured by this method, of not less than 0.5 traditionally
          have been recognized as providing nonhazardous walkway
          surfaces. This value of not less than 0.5 meets the
          requirements for compliance to Rule 5 on “The use of terms
          slip retardant, slip resistant or terms of similar import,” of
          the Proposed Trade Practice Rules for the Floor Wax and
          Floor Polish Industry as issued by the Federal Trade
          Commission on March 17, 1953.
4. Apparatus
    4.1 James Machine (Fig.1).3

    4.2 Shoe, faced with sole leather,4 and sanded to a smooth, flat
          surface with No. 400-A wet or dry carborundum paper.

1    This method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D-21
      of Polishes. Current edition approved Feb. 28, 1975. Published
      April 1975. Originally published as D 2047- 64T. Previous
      edition D 2047- 72.

2    Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Part 30.

3    This machine was developed by S. V. James of the
      Underwriters’ Laboratories, Inc. Machines are available from
      AIDE Inc., 1833 Oakdale Ave., Racine, Wis. 53405 and T M I,
      400 Bayview Ave., Amityville, NY 11701.

4    This material is available from Eberle Tanning Co., Westfield,
      Pa 16950.

5    This material is available from the 3M Co., St. Paul, Minn.

6 OTAT is suggested as an alternate if OTVAT is not available.
      OTAT and OTVAT are Official Test Asphalt Tile and Vinyl
      Asbestos Tile, respectively, of the Chemical Specialties
      Manufacturers Assn., 50 E. 41st St., New York 10017, and can
      be obtained from them.

7    These files may be used and reused for testing many times
      after having been prepared once as in 5.2 to 5.5. Tiles should
      be discarded when they show excessive wear or when erratic
      results are obtained. At least 25 tests can be run before this
      will be noticed.

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